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== SAMPLE ==
1. Which represents the management functions that are incorporated into the management process?
A) Planning, directing, organizing, staffing, and evaluating
B) Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
C) Organizing, planning, staffing, directing, and evaluating
D) Organizing, staffing, planning, implementing, and controlling
Management functions include planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. These are incorporated into what is known as the management process.
2. What does traditional management science focuses upon?
A) Meeting worker satisfaction
B) Delineating barriers to productivity
C) Using a laissez-faire approach
D) Encouraging employee participation
Classical, or traditional, management science focuses on production in the workplace and on delineating organizational barriers to productivity. Little attention was given to worker job satisfaction, and workers were assumed to be motivated solely by economic rewards.
3. What assumption about workers does Theory X hold?
A) Workers will naturally put forth effort
B) Workers need threats to be motivated
C) Workers are diligent and responsible
D) Workers are in tune with organizational needs
Theory X managers believe that their employees are basically lazy, need constant supervision and direction, and are indifferent to organizational needs.
4. What does the Hawthorne effect implied about people?
A) Human beings under investigation will respond to the fact that they are being studied
B) Production will increase or decrease as light in a factory is increased or decreased
C) Membership in small groups forms social control
D) People are inherently good and will seek out work
Hawthorne effect indicated that people respond to the fact that they are being studied, attempting to increase whatever behavior they feel will continue to warrant the attention. The other statements do not reflect implied beliefs about people.
5. Managing conflict among staff members would occur in which part of the management process?
Directing sometimes includes several staffing functions. However, this phase’s functions usually entail human resource management responsibilities, such as motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, and facilitating collaboration. Planning encompasses determining philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and rules; carrying out long- and short-range projections; determining a fiscal course of action; and managing planned change. Organizing includes establishing the structure to carry out plans, determining the most appropriate type of patient care delivery, and grouping activities to meet unit goals.
6. What is the idea that workers should be hired, trained, and promoted based on their competence and abilities related to?
A) Part of the management functions identified by Fayol
B) The result of the human relations studies
C) The outcome of studies done by Mayo at the Hawthorne Works
D) One of the four overriding principles of scientific management
Frederick Taylor, the “father of scientific management,” had the idea that workers should be hired, trained, and promoted based on their competence and abilities. This concept is not associated with any of the other options.
7. Max Weber, a well-known German sociologist, began to study large-scale organizations to determine what made some more efficient than others. What was his conclusion?
A) Workers had to have a say in management to work most effectively
B) Consistent rules and regulations for workers increased efficiency
C) Employees should feel appreciated and valued
D) Workers need frequent rest periods to increase overall production
Weber saw the need for legalized, formal authority and consistent rules and regulations for personnel in different positions. He thus proposed bureaucracy as an organizational design. None of the other options reflect his conclusions.
8. Which leadership style maintains strong control over the work group and uses coercion to motivate others?
D) A contingency approach
Lewin identified three common leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. Authoritarian leadership results in well-defined group actions that are usually predictable, reducing frustration in the work group and giving members a feeling of security. Productivity is usually high, but creativity, self-motivation, and autonomy are reduced. Authoritarian leadership is frequently found in very large bureaucracies such as the armed forces. Coercion to motivate is not associated with the other options.
9. Which statement about situational or contingency leadership theory is correct?
A) High relationship behavior is much more essential to a good manager than high task behavior
B) This leadership model is effective in bureaucratic organizations because it is task focused
C) Management should be consistent in different situations so workers understand what is expected of them
D) The leadership style chosen by a manager should reflect the task/relationship behavior of those being managed
The idea that leadership style should vary according to the situation or the individuals involved was first suggested almost 100 years ago by Mary Parker Follett, one of the earliest management consultants and among the first to view an organization as a social system of contingencies. The other options present statements that are incorrect.
10. Which statement depicts leadership?
A) A leadership position is assigned
B) A leadership position carries a legitimate source of power
C) Members of a group will follow a person in a leadership position only by choice
D) Leadership requires meeting organizational goals
A leader is the person who guides direction, opinion, and course of action without having an assigned position within the formal organization and so people choose to follow them. The other options are not accurate descriptions of leadership.
11. Gardner states that integrated leaders-managers distinguish themselves from more traditional managers in six ways. Which is a distinguishing trait of a traditional manager rather than an integrated leader-manager?
A) They are politically astute
B) They look outward, toward the larger organization
C) They extend influence only to their own group
D) They emphasize vision, values, and motivation
Traditional managers influence those in their own groups while integrated leaders influence others beyond their own group. The remaining options represent traits that may be shared by both types.
12. What concept does early leadership-theory development suggest?
A) Leadership is a process of influencing others within an organizational culture
B) The interactive relationship between the leader and the follower is significant
C) Some are born to lead, whereas others are born to be led
D) Vision and empowerment are two of the most critical leadership skills
Early leadership theorists focused on broad conceptualizations of leadership that assumed that people have certain characteristics or personality traits that make them better leaders than others. The remaining options do not describe a concept suggested by early leadership-theory development.
13. Which is a characteristic of Theory Z?
A) Non-consensus decision making
B) Fitting employees to their jobs
C) Rapid career promotions
D) Authoritative problem solving
Characteristics of Theory Z include fitting employees to their jobs, consensus decision making, job security, slower promotions, examining the long-term consequences of management decision making, quality circles, guarantee of lifetime employment, establishment of strong bonds of responsibility between superiors and subordinates, and a holistic concern for the workers.
14. What type of leader is the person who is committed, has a vision, and is able to empower others with this vision?
Transformational leadership positively impacts the leader and the follower, who have a collective purpose. The traditional manager, concerned with the day-to-day operations, was termed a transactional leader. The remaining options are not associated with these characteristics.
15. How many primary leadership styles have been identified?
Three primary leadership styles have been identified: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.
16. What type of management was emphasized in the human relations era of management?
The human relations era of management science emphasized concepts of participatory and humanistic management. Three primary leadership styles have been identified: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.
17. What is a distinguishing trait of integrated leader-managers? Select all that apply.
A) Inward thinkers
B) Long-term thinkers
C) Concerned with employee motivation
D) Possess influence beyond their own group
Ans: B, C, D
Gardner asserted that integrated leader-managers possess six distinguishing traits: They influence others beyond their own group; they emphasize vision, values, and motivation; they think longer term; they look outward, toward the larger organization they are politically astute; they think in terms of change and renewal.
18. What is the basic premise of the interactional theory?
A) Leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s personality and the specific situation
B) Manager behaviors are generally determined by the relationship between the manager’s personality and the specific situation.
C) Both managers and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality.
D) Both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality.
The basic premise of interactional theory is that leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leader’s personality and the specific situation. Transformational leadership is where both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality.
19. It is the idea that context is an important mediator of transformational leadership, that led to the creation of full range leadership theory early in the 21st century. This theory originally developed by Antonakis, Avolio, and Sivasubramaniam suggests how many transformational factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers?
There are nine factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers; five are transformational, three are transactional, and one is a nonleadership or laissez-faire leadership factor.
20. What type of manager is concerned with the day-to-day operations?
The traditional manager, concerned with the day-to-day operations, is termed a transactional leader. This is not a characteristic of the other options.
21. What is the typical focus of managers? Select all that apply.
A) Establishing a legitimate source of power
B) Delegating responsibilities to staff members
C) Formulate the budget to achieve the stated goals
D) Direct attention to the management of unwilling subordinates
Ans: A, B, C
The manager is typically involved in the delegation of responsibilities through the power of the legitimate power associated with the position. To manipulate people, the environment, money, time, and other resources to achieve organizational goals is also a manager’s focus. Attention to both willing and unwilling subordinates as well as established responsibilities is associated with the role of the manager.
22. Which activity is associated with a leadership role? Select all that apply.
A) Mentoring two new managers
B) Establishing goals for the coming year
C) Advocating for employee regarding personal policies
D) Providing a motivational speech at the new employee orientation
Ans: A, B, C, D
Leadership roles include mentoring, decision making, advocating, andenergizing. Risk taking is also considered a leadership role.
23. The failure to engage in which activity is considered a fatal flaw of leadership? Select all that apply.
D) Staff development
Ans: A, B, C, D
Leadership is flawed and likely ineffective when the leader does not collaborate and communicate effectively with others in the organization. The improvement and development of both others and oneself is vital to the effectiveness of a leader. Clear forward thinking is associated with good leadership.
24. Which statement by a subordinate demonstrates the greatest problem for the leader?
A) “Your plans for the changes will be difficult to implement.”
B) “I don’t think you heard what the rest of us had to say.”
C) “Do you have an idea what direction we need to go?”
D) “Can you tell me why my suggestion will not work?”
The statement is a clear indication that the subordinate feels the leader is not listening and collaborating; this is a fatal flaw. The other statements are more open to explanation by and with the subordinate and leader.
25. Which function of the management process involves the performance evaluation of staff?
Controlling is the function that includes performance appraisals, fiscal accountability, quality control, legal and ethical control, and professional and collegial control.